tv Global 3000 PBS April 8, 2015 12:30am-1:01am PDT
the death of michael brown - the unarmed black teenager gunned down by a police officer in the us city of ferguson last august sparked a massive wave of protests against racism within the police force. now us president obama wants to increase transparency and re-train officers to build better relationships with communities. here's what we've got coming up. when to shoot and when not -- keeping tabs on the us police. marine life at risk in mozambique - meet one women hoping to turn the tide and we ask the bangladeshi
commerce minister what progress his country's made on protecting workers' rights. tensions are rising again in ferguson. last week, two police officers were shot by protesters just hours after the police chief announced his resignation, following a damning report on the city's criminal justice system. it identified deep-rooted racial bias among the local police and judiciary. back in december, us president barack obama pledged to introduce policing reforms. one of the proposals is to fit officers with body cameras. the hope is that better training and more transparency will prevent needless deaths in the future. >> shots are fired in a movie theatre; there's panic. three cops have to stop the gunman. they stay alert and keep their nerve.
where is the shooter hiding? it can be a question of life or death. they confront him on the parking lot outside the back door. >> drop the gun! >> put the gun down! >> the gunman shoots. seconds later, he's on the ound. we're at a police training center in greater los angeles. the officers learn to control their reflexes and not to be too quick on the gun. and, it may come as a surprise they learn to shoot to kill. >> when we look at the idea of, well, 'i'm just going to shoot him in the arm to wound him' that doesn't get it. you have a good twenty seconds of life still in you before you're going to go down necessarily, so how many times could you pull that trigger in a
twenty-second time period? a lot! you could empty that whole gun, reload and shoot again. that's a lot of rounds coming your way, or killing hostages or anybody else in the area. >> there are some who disagree. the movement 'black lives matter' resists vigilante and police violence against black people. here in detroit, many people have experienced aggressive police checks. ron scott is already a veteran of the movement. he tries to encourage young people to get active, saying president barack obama's reforms are only the beginning. young blacks are being shot and killed by cops who are badly trained and armed to the teeth. many of the victims are children such as aiyana, who was just seven when she died. ron scott introduces us to aiyana's family. her grandmother was in the house when a police swat team raided it. she described it as like being
in a war. >> i'm seeing all of these flashing lights in here, and glass breaking, my door coming open everything, and so i rolled off the couch and hit the floor and just lay there like that. and aiyana was at the end where the door was at. and one of the officers finally cut the light on in the room and seen that aiyana had been shot, and he hollered, "oh [expletive]" and i said, "oh [expletive]. yeah, you all done [expletive] up! 'cause y'll done kilt my mother [expletive] grandbaby" >> all the family has to remember aiyana by are some snapshots. after two mistrials, the felony charges were dropped against the officer involved. to this day, he has given no apologies nor words of remorse. >> they had guns on dominique and the kids.
they took and sat dominique on the arm of the couch, where they just blew her daughter's [expletive] brains out, with her new-born baby and the damn door open! >> back at the training center in greater los angeles, the police officers have long gotten accustomed to wearing the body cameras called for by the president's proposed reforms. sergeant josh lindsay shows us his third eye. it records everything from his point of view. during the interview, sergeant lindsay receives a call. he's got to find a hit-and-run driver who may be aggressive and is probably armed. >> you don't know what you're going to encounter. you don't know if you're going to encounter any type of a weapon, or what type of a weapon you may encounter during an interaction with somebody. and then that just goes back into the cameras.
i really like the fact that we have the cameras, because it documents what we see real time. helicopters are already circling -- >> helicopters are already circling above the area. anxious neighbors point the way. sergeant lindsay explains that situations like this can easily escalate. our cameras aren't allowed on the property, but the body cameras record everything that happens in the abandoned yard. if the incident goes to court, the video will show that the officers may have threatened to set their dogs on the suspects but didn't actually do it. the suspect surrendered. there was no violence. the video will be saved for twelve months. >> sometimes they want to come and complain and say that, you know, we did this when we actually didn't. so, again, the body camera's going to document exactly what we did and exactly what we said, so that way, if there's any type of an investigation, it just proves what we did and what actions we took.
>> the swat team that raided aiyana's house had no body cameras. for four years, her family sought to bring the officer who shot her to trial, but without success. we meet aiyana's grandmother at the cemetery. she has to clear the snow off her granddaughter's grave. it's somehow fitting, she remarks bitterly. only the day before, all felony charges against the officer who fired the fatal shots were dismissed. >> instead of going in there friday, when they formally dismissed the charges, i came out here. i'd rather be with her. >> the family left court empty-handed. all they have now is the hope that obama's proposed reforms lead to real change for example, that african-americans will no longer fear being shot by the police instead of protected by them.
>> that will require changing attitudes. no doubt a tough challenge, but a necessary one to bring about real change. now to western china. the city of dunhuang along the historic silk road is a place steeped in history and surrounded by desert. now a famous lake south of the city, is in danger of drying up but the locals are fighting the desert as best they can. >> mingsha, or singing sands. that's what they call the dunes south the oasis city of dunhuang in western china . the dunes are popular with tourists, who come to ride camels or go sledding or to see another unique natural phenomenon. south of town, among the dunes, lies crescent lake. for more than two thousand years, it's been fed by subterranean springs.
it's long been a favorite subject of photographer sun quanhua. >> the lake used to be much bigger and deeper. it's said to have been ten meters deep. older people would always say you couldn't reach the bottom. but now it's dwindled away, and it's not as deep any more only about three meters. >> the lake is slowly drying up. qin jian's peach orchard is still a lush green, but farming and the booming tourist trade continue to drain off much of the groundwater. >> normally, we get water once or twice a month. it's regulated. we prune the trees in the spring to keep them from growing too big and using too much water.
fertilizer helps a little. the farmer gets the equivalent >> of about six euros per kilo of dried peaches. it's hard work for a yearly income of about fifty thousand yuan or some four thousand euros. the desert is advancing up to four meters per year. and it's hard for qin to understand why the government is making his work as a farmer more difficult. >> we're limited by the government. i have areas by the dunes that i'm not allowed to use, either for growing crops or grazing animals. we get too little water. >> so qin is jumping on the tourist bandwagon. he's bought a camel. and the family has set up ten yurts in their yard that they rent out to tourists for a bit of extra income.
some of dunhuang's just under 200-thousand residents like to relax in the desert on the weekend. they barbecue meat in the peach orchard and take walks in the dunes. >> they should definitely preserve this place. it's good that so many tourists are coming. that brings in revenues, and the money can be used to protect the environment. but too much tourism can also be harmful. >> more people coming to the oasis also means more water consumption. it's a vicious circle that's hard to stop once it's started. all too often, solving one problem simply creates another, but at least it can buy some time. at the research institute in lanzhou, professor quijan jun
has been investigating the interaction of man and desert for more than thirty years. >> the central problem is the water supply. the rivers shule and danghe no longer exist. that's going to be the problem in future. >> professor qujian's students evaluate soil samples. if the sand's water content falls below four percent, the dunes are vulnerable to wind erosion. they destabilize and start to wander. wind corridors are designed to prevent the desert from spreading. at first, scientists tried putting up windbreaks made of straw. but now, straw is hard to find along the edges of the oasis. the newer fences are made of plastic. once grass and brush grow
between them, the erosion will slow down. legend has it that the city of yang-guan, just seventy kilometers away, was swallowed by a sandstorm. the chinese cabinet has earmarked 650 mmillion euros to fund a ten-year-plan and spare dunhuang a similar fate. >> the bazaruto archipelago off the coast of mozambique is the place to see giant manta-rays. but like many other species, their body parts are sought after for traditional chinese medicine, putting pressure on their populations.the "marine megafauna foundation" has been monitoring the mantas and other wildlife for years.but science alone won't turn the tide, so researchers have teamed up with national park rangers to save their protegees.
>> everyone must be absolutely silent . andrea marshall and her team are looking for a large sea creature the dugong >> andrea! andrea! >> the dugong is extremely shy and can easily outswim the humans >> this park is so incredibly important for megafauna species, especially the threatened ones like manta rays and dugongs, this really is the last habitat
left in africa for dugongs, this is the last viable population of dugongs that we have along this coastline. and for manta rays this was an incredible place, in all my travels around the world i have never encountered a location where both species of manta rays live. so this makes it such a critical habitat for manta rays, and this is one of the reasons why i have dedicated my life to doing research in southern mozambique. >> the marine biologist and her team have been doing research in the bazaruto archipelago for 13 years. these nutrient-rich waters are a favorite breeding ground for several large fish and marine mammal species. even though it's a protected area, fish stocks have been dwindling. tomas manasse was born on the main island. he supervises 23 rangers for the national park. he says they need to be more to cover the many jobs rangers have to do.
they go on patrols, collect data and provide information. comunities want to know why farming has to be limited on the islands and fishing, as well. manasse and his brothers are the first in their family who don't make a living from fishing. it's the only way the region will have a future, he says. >> the communities outside the national park have no spaces where the fish can reproduce. as fish stocks decline, the pressure grows. that leads to ever greater conflicts with the fishermen from the mainland. they even encroach on the totally protected areas to go fishing. just outside the park, there are many more gill-nets than there used to be. it's hardly possible for any fish to escape, and now they're declining. >> but what alternatives do the fishermen have for their
livelihoods? tourism? maybe. andrea marshall and her team have invited ten park rangers and their new superior to take part in training. it's the first professional training many of them have ever had. >> this is such an exciting day for me, we have been anticipating doing an event like this for government for a national park for a very long time. for me being a researcher here in mozambique i have been stuck for many years as i 've been trying to find out how to work better with government how to help try and build capacity more. >> park director ricardina matusse is relatively new. for the first time they been working closly now. on a map, the men mark exactly where they've seen what animal species and compare the sightings with the researchers' data.
>> this course is very important. if we manage to work together well on the first phase, we'll be able to negotiate a second and a third. we'll learn how to go diving ourselves and show the tourists the fish and other things. >> first many of them have to lean how to swim. the park director goes first. i'm so glad i'm finally learning to swim. i've wanted to do this all my life. i'm just hoping it all goes well. >> the intensive course lasts five days. those who already know how to swim learn snorkeling and diving. but this group is starting from the beginning. the teacher tells them to relax. it takes some courage for them to lift their feet off the bottom. it's not unusual that the local people don't know how to swim. hardly any of the fishermen have
ever learned. but many of the rangers say they always wanted to, because how can they protect the sea animals, know the reefs, and react in an emergency if they never come in contact with the water? but first, they have to learn to let go of their fear. i feel really good, for the first time. with the help of these professionals i can learn things i wasn't able to before. >> by the end of the course, almost everyone here will be able to have swim in the open ocean. andrea marshall depends on their help. after every dive, she evaluates her shots. each manta ray has its distinguishing marks. she also works with genetic
samples for what may be the world's most comprehensive manta ray data bank. >> manta rays are worth a lot of money, and mozambique is currently ranked number four in terms of countries around the world that are profiting from the manta ray tourism. and mozambique is making somewhere in the vicinity of seven to eight million dollars a year off manta ray tourism, manta ray diving tourism. and i feel that that definitively can be an incentive you know for government to say: listen this animal is worth a lot more alive than it is dead. we've lost about 88 % of the population in the last 8 to 10 years. we don't really have much time to rebuild these numbers before they are regionally extinct here. even so, mozambique has yet to place the manta ray on its list of protected species.
>> bangladesh has an image problem. a string of deadly accidents, like the rana plaza fire in 2013, prompted global calls for reforms. in part conditions did improve, but the collapse of a cement factory a few days ago cast doubts on whether these changes will be enough. now the country's political turmoil is making headlines....more than 100 people have died in anti-government protests since the beginning of this year. investors are pulling out and many people fear that newly acquired rights could get lost in political chaos. >> for the past two months, bangladesh has been rocked by shutdowns, blockades and fire-bombings allegedly carried out by opposition sympathizers. the country's garment workers toil long hours, all the while
fearing for their lives. we met the bangladeshi commerce minister in berlin to discuss working conditions in the factories. but he plays down any security concerns in his country. >> no, no, the political situation is not volatile, it is good, there is a parliament, election was held, now a political party called for a strike, but nobody responds, people do not accept it, normalcy prevails at the present moment, nothing is happening there. >> just two years ago in april, the rana plaza textile factory collapsed, claiming more than eleven hundred lives. the political and business elite are both anxious to avoid any hint of a repeat. the rana plaza disaster attracted the world's attention. international pressure was supposed to help bring about
improvements in factory conditions: new mandatory safety standards, emergency exits, and fire protection for the seamstresses, and a somewhat higher minimum wage. but now, the unrest and blockades are often blamed when safety inspections fail to take place. and working conditions in many factories remain virtually unchanged. >> we have near about 3500 industries, 2500 industries have been inspected by accord and alliance, and the rest will be inspected very soon within the next two years. so there is no illegal industries, everybody is responsible, and everybody shall have to explain their position, so there is no illegal industries in bangladesh. now deliveries are hit by delays, orders are slowing down, and some factory owners can't or won't pay the higher wages. some companies are even moving abroad like here, to myanmar. bangladesh's eastern neighbor is just opening to the outside world
and competing with it. >> the person who is gonna be rushing in, moving orders from bangladesh to myanmar is a person that is welcome to go there. because the fact is that that person is somebody who is looking for that ten cents advantage. we want customers in bangladesh who want a sustainable long term partnership not a short term killing. >> the rana plaza disaster served as a wake-up call to the increasingly globalized garment industry. bangladesh is only taking the first steps toward making its factories safer. the commerce minister promises more will follow. a second major disaster cannot be allowed. >> and for that matter we have taken, we have borrowed loan from china, 1.5 billion dollars for setting up an industrial park for the garment industry.
>> the accidents and instability may be keeping the very investment away that's needed to improve conditions. but the women of bangladesh are determined to fight for more rights and better conditions in the garment factories. >> these women clearly know their rights and will stand for them. now it's time for the politicians to step up to the plate and end the gridlock. and that's all we have time for on this edition of global 3000. for now from me and the whole global team, thanks for watching and bye bye! [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org]
it's one of the last bits of a british empire that at one time controlled a quarter of the planet. the rock itself seems to represent stability and power. and as if to remind visitors that they've left spain and entered the united kingdom, international flights land on this airstrip, which runs along the border. car traffic has to stop for each plane. still, entering gibraltar is far easier today than back when franco blockaded this border. from the late 1960s until the '80s, the only way in was by sea or air. now you just have to wait for the plane to taxi by, and bob's your uncle. the sea once reached these ramparts. a modern development grows into the harbor, and today half the city is built upon reclaimed land. gibraltar's old town is long and skinny, with one main street. gibraltarians are a proud bunch, remaining steadfastly loyal to britain.
its 30,000 residents vote overwhelmingly to continue as a self-governing british dependency. within a generation, the economy has gone from one dominated by the military to one based on tourism. but it's much more than sunburned brits on holiday. gibraltar is a crossroads community with a jumble of muslims, jews, hindus, and italians joining the english, and all crowded together at the base of this mighty rock. with its strategic setting, gibraltar has an illustrious military history, and remnants of its martial past are everywhere. the rock is honeycombed with tunnels. many were blasted out by the brits in napoleonic times. during world war ii, britain drilled 30 more miles of tunnels. the 100-ton gun is one of many cannon that both protected gibraltar and controlled shipping in the strait. a cable car whisks visitors from downtown to the rock's 14,000-foot summit.
from the top of the rock, spain's costa del sol arcs eastward, and 15 miles across the hazy strait of gibraltar, the shores of morocco beckon. these cliffs and those over in africa created what ancient societies in the mediterranean world called the pillars of hercules. for centuries, they were the foreboding gateway to the unknown. descending the rock, whether you like it or not, you'll meet the famous apes of gibraltar. 200 of these mischief-makers entertain tourists. and with all the visitors, they're bold, and they get their way. yeah? you can have it. you can -- you can -- you can -- here on the rock of gibraltar, the locals are very friendly, but give them your apples. legend has it that as long as these apes are here, the british will stay in gibraltar.
♪ >> memphis, tennessee. it has been written, if music were religion, then memphis would be jerusalem and sun studio its most sacred shrine. and you are here with the local saints! ♪ and i love you ♪ and will be okay ♪ oh, >> hey, i'm jamie. >> and i'm rob. >> we are with the local saints. i play bass and sing. >> my name is chad and i do percussion. and there's zach walton who does keys and billy smartho